member since 08/30/2012
I'm a 37 year old guy from Surakarta, Indonesia
About me: My name Rafiqa Hanum
Born in Surakarta Date August 18, 1970
Was raised by the family of a prosperous

History of Education
SDN Surakarta No. 04
SMP 7 Solo
SMAN 1 Solo
S1 Technical Information

My name Rafiqa Hanum
Born in Surakarta Date August 18, 1970
Was raised by the family of a prosperous

History of Education
SDN Surakarta No. 04
SMP 7 Solo
SMAN 1 Solo
S1 Technical Information
User Votes: 0 Helpful / 0 Funny / 0 Agree / 0 Disagree
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Activity for hanumrafiqa

365 days ago


Computer assembler elements available on the market with a wide selection of quality and price. By building your own pc, you can specify the kind of factor, capabilities and facilities of the pc as needed.

Stages in the set up of the pc comprises of:

A. Preparation
B. Assembling
C. Examination
D. Managing Problems


Good planning will assist in the set up of a pc and prevent the issues that may arise.

Matters related to the planning include:
Computer Settings Determination
Preparation Kompunen and supplies

Computer Settings Determination

Configure a pc hooked up to the perseverance of the elements and features of the pc and how all elements work as a pc according to our wishes.

Determination of the kind of processer elements begins, mother board, and other elements. Factors suitability or compatibility of the elements on the mother board must be considered, because each kind of mother board supports the kind of processer, storage segments, slots and I / O bus is different.

Preparation Components and Supplies

Computer elements and equipment for the set up ready for set up ready in advance to assist in set up. The fixtures were ready consisting of: Computer Components
Completeness of elements such as cords, fasteners, jumpers, bolts, etc.
Manuals and referrals of the component
Tools such as flat and philips screwdriver
Software os, system individuals and program applications.

As referrals guides necessary to know the place of the factor connection plan (connectors, slots and slots) and factor configuration (jumpers and switches) and how to set jumpers and changes are suitable for constructed computers.

Diskette or CD software required to set up the os, system individuals from it, and program applications on a pc that is complete constructed.


Safety precautions are necessary to prevent issues such as harm to the elements by fixed power, falls, spilled liquids or excessive warm.

Prevention of harm due to fixed power in a way: Using anti-static wristband or in contact with a steel area on the framework before handling elements to eliminate fixed charge.
Do not directly touch the digital elements, connections or routine paths but holding the body of contained nasty or steel elements.


Stages of the process on the pc set up comprises of:
Preparation motherboard
Installing the processor
Installing the heatsink
Installing the Memory Module
installing mother board in Casing
Installing the Energy Supply
Installing the Motherboard Cables and Casing
Installing the Drive
Installing the Adaptor Card
Final Settlement

1. Preparation motherboard

Check your motherboard's guide to determine the place of the jumpers for setting the CPU rate, rate multiplier and current input to the mother board. Set the bouncer configurations according to the guidelines, set the jumpers fault current can harm the processer.

2. Setting up the processor

Processor more easily set up before the mother board occupies the covering. How to set up the processer connect and slot kinds are different.

Type of socket
Locate the pin 1 on the processer and the processer connect on the mother board, usually located on the corner marked with dots, triangles or indentation.
Enforce the place of the securing handle to open the connect.
Insert the processer into the connect by first aligning the place of the legs of the processer with the connect gaps. close it until there is no gap between the processer with the connect.
Lower the securing handle returning.

Type Slot
Replace buffer (bracket) at the two ends of the slot on the mother board so that the place of the peg gaps with an opening in the mother board meet
Enter then the securing pegs pegs pegs in holes
Slide the cards processer between the owner and media it to fit exactly into the opening slot.

3. Setting up the Heatsink

The function is to eliminate the heatsink warm generated by the processer through the conduction of warm from the processer to the heatsink.

To optimize warm transfer the heatsink should be fitted tightly on the top of the processer with some of the clip as a drag on the heatsink contact area while genes coated conductors of warm.

If the heatsink comes with fan power connect on the fan linked with the fan connections on the mother board.

4. Setting up the Memory Module

Memory segments are usually set up sequentially from the smallest connect number. The order of set up can be seen from the plan mother board.

Each kind of storage factor that is SIMM, DIMM and RIMM can be contrasted with the place of the lines on the sides and bottom of the factor.

How to set up for each kind of storage factor as follows.

Adjust the place of lines on the factor with the tab in the slot.
Enter the factor by making an oblique angle of 45 degrees to the slot
Push the factor straight up in the slot, the securing handle on the slot will instantly lock the factor.

Type DIMM and RIMM

How to set up a DIMM and RIMM segments together and there is only one way that will not be changed because there are two lines as a guide. The difference DIMM and RIMM place curve
Lay lock at the end of the slot
adjust the place of lines on the connect factor with the tab in the slot. and place the factor into the slot.
Latch instantly locks the factor in the slot when the factor is set up right.

5. Setting up the Motherboard in Casing

Motherboard installed to the framework with fasteners and increasing (standoff). Installation means the following:
Locate the increasing gaps for each nasty and steel. Holes for increasing steel (metal spacer) is characterized by a ring on the edge of the opening.
Attach nasty or steel owner on the plate covering according to the place of each corresponding increasing gaps on the mother board.
Place the mother board on the framework so that the head owner plate out of the gaps on the mother board. Insert the securing twist on each steel owner.
Attach frame slot I / O (I / O sheild) on the mother board if any.
Install the plate covering which is installed on the framework and key mother board with fasteners.

6. Setting up the Energy Supply

Some kind of covering is equipped with an electrical. When the ability is not included the set up means the following: Get into the ability on the shelf at the returning of the covering. Connect all four securing fasteners.
Connect the ability connect from the ability to the mother board. ATX power connect kinds have only one way of fixing that will not be changed. For non ATX kind connect with two wires separated the black ground should be placed side by side and installed in the middle of the mother board power connect. Hook up the cable for the fan, if you use the fan for the CPU cooler.

7. Setting up the Motherboard Cables and Casing

Once the mother board is set up in the covering next step is to set up the wire I / O board on the mother board and the covering.
Connect the data wire to the weak generate connect on the mother board weak controller
Attach the IDE wire to the main and additional IDE connect on the mother board.
For non-ATX mother board. Substitute the sequential and parallel slot wire to the connect on the mother board. Observe the place of pin 1 to set up.
On the returning of the covering there is an opening for attaching additional kinds of non-slot slot. Open the securing plate twist gaps covered lalumasukkan slot connect slot you want to set up and re-install the twist.
When the computer mouse slot not available behind the cards covering computer mouse connect should be set up and linked with the computer mouse connect on the mother board.
Wiring connections on the top side board of the change framework, LED, inner speakers and slots are installed on the top side of the covering when the mother board. Examine the mother board plan to find the appropriate connect.

8. Setting up the Drive

The procedure to set up the hard drive generate, weak, CD ROM, CD-RW or DVD is the same as follows: Get rid of generate bay protect pellets (space to generate the casing)
Enter the generate bay from the top side of the first set the bouncer configurations (as expert or slave) on the generate.
Adjust the place of the twist gaps on the generate and the covering and replace the fasteners securing the generate.
Connect the IDE wire to the generate and the connect on the mother board (primary connect is used first)
Repeat steps 1 samapai 4 for each set up of the generate.
When the IDE wire linked with du generate make sure the bouncer configurations differences both the first generate set as expert and the other as the servant.
Secondary IDE connect on the mother board can be used in order to connect two additional drives.
Floppy generate is linked with a special weak connect on the motherboard
Connect the ability wire from the ability to each generate.

9. Setting up the Adaptor Card

Card plugs are usually set up video clip cards, audio, network, hub and SCSI plugs. Video cards should usually be installed and set up prior to the other adapter cards.

How to set up the adapter:
Hold the adapter cards at the edges, feel, as this digital elements or routine. Press the cards until the connect fit in the expansion slot on the motherboard
Install the retaining fasteners to the framework card
Reconnect the inner cords on the cards, if any.

10. Penyelessaian End
Replace the framework protect by sliding
connect the wire from the ability into a wall connect.
Attach the observe to it clip cards slot.
Plug the phone cable into the hub slot if any.
Connect the keyboard wire connect and connect the computer mouse into the computer mouse slot or sequential poert (depending on the kind of mouse).
Connect external devices such as speakers, joystick, and microphone if any to the appropriate slot. Examine the guide of the adapter cards to ascertain the location of the slot.


The pc that you just constructed can be tested by running the BIOS set up program. How to conduct testing with BIOS program as follows:
Turn on the observe and the program unit. Observe the show observe and the audio from the speakers.
Program fost of the BIOS will instantly detect the set up components pc. If there are errors then the show is blank and the speakers emit a beep regularly as an indicator of the mistake value. Examine the BIOS referrals value to find the mistake sign is the beep value.
If no mistake occurs then the observe displays the execution of the POST program. Press the button interrupts the BIOS per the guidelines on the screen to type in the BIOS set up program.
Check out all the results of components detection by the BIOS set up program. Some configurations may have changed its value, especially hard drive generate capacity and the start series.
Save your changes and exit the configurations of the BIOS set up.

After exiting the BIOS set up, the pc will load an os with appropriate search order configurations in the BIOS start series. Insert a bootable diskette or CD containing the os to generate the search.

Handling Problems

Problems that usually occur in pc set up and handling, among others:
Computer or observe does not turn, probably caused by a change or cable disconnected.
Card adapter is not detected due to the set up of cards not fitting into the slot /
LED of the difficult drive, weak or CD illuminate due to cabling mistake or there are pin connect that fits yet linked.

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365 days ago

Benefits for the person pc can be organized into two, namely: for the needs of companies, and the program to the group.

The main purpose of the company of a program in a company are:

Resource providing is designed to make the whole program, the equipment, especially details can be used by everyone on the program.

Saving Cash (Saving money / budget): The facts that can be allocated and will make considerable resources benefits, because it does not need to buy a new program to be set up in each and every program of computer

High balance (high reliability): Control Information System Included Office or one-stop support with client-server engineering, On the internet and intranet can be used to pcs, so as to provide a effective, fast and accurate according to the needs and objectives.

Benefits for group pc networks:

Computer techniques will provide different alternatives to clients in homes contrary to the alternatives provided to the company. There are three main factors that type the fascination pc techniques at the person, namely:
access to details living in other places (such as admission to the latest details, details e-government, e-commerce or e-business, everything is up to date).
person to personal connections (such as e-mail, discuss, video conferene etc.).
Interactive entertainment (such as watch tv shows online, running programs, acquire movies or music, etc.).
1.5 Public problems coming up from pc (the Internet)

Network usage by the group will lead to the overall look of public problems, concepts, condition guidelines, and company business economics are expected. The On the internet has signed up with the lifestyle of people all over, everyone can use regardless of their public position, age, sex as well.

Internet usage will not cause any problems as long as the subject is limited to specific topics, knowledge or activity, are also factors that are still within the factors of lifestyle, but trouble began to appear when a site online has a very interesting subject of people attention, such as govt issue, perception, sex, etc.

Computer's program connection / online will also cause serious economical problems if the engineering is used by certain parties-parties who want to take personal advantage but destructive to other activities, such as carding activity, illicitly acquire professional software etc..

The pictures released details on web sites may be something unusual for sebahagian people, but very annoying for some others (because it can cause problems SARA).

In addition, the way of details are not limited to textual details only. High-resolution colour pictures and even videoclip singkatpun now can be easily assigned over pcs.

Some people may be unsociable, but for some other improving content (eg pornography) is something that is unwanted.
1.6 Kinds of networks

In common, a pc is divided into three types of networks:
1.6.1 Local Position System (LAN)

A LAN is a program that is limited by a relatively little place, generally enclosed by where of ​​the environment, such as a company office in a building, or of each room at a school. Usually the variety between nodes is not more than about 200 m.

Figure 1.6. Local Position System (LAN)
1.6.2 Downtown Position System (MAN)

A MAN, usually defends a larger place than a LAN, for example, between components in a location (such as provincial place or state). In this case, the program connects several little tissues items into a larger location of ​​the environment, for example as follows: a program of several department office buildings of a loan company in a huge town that is connected with each other.

Figure 1.7. Downtown Position Network
1.6.3 Large Position System (WAN)

Wide Position System (WAN) is a program that usually uses wireless media, indicates of satellite tv tv or roughage optic cable, because of the wider chance, defending not just one town or between places in where, but began getting where / place govt systems of other countries.

For example, any office pc City Financial institution in Malaysia or that you can get in other countries, which are connected, program ATM Professional Financial institution cards, Charge Financial institution cards or Cirrus are distribute throughout the world and others.

WAN is usually more complicated and extremely complicated in evaluation to LAN or MAN. Using many method for connect between LAN and WAN into worldwide connections like the globally web, however the LAN, MAN and WAN is not much different in some factors, only the chance of where is just a different one in the other.

Figure 1.8. Large Position Network

Table 1.2. System based on the variety between nodes

The concepts ​​contained in the desk above, is not an overall value for the variety that connects between pcs, because the variety can be decreased with regards to the conditions of where of ​​a place.

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365 days ago

1.3.1 Pc Networking

Ditahun 50's when the types of computer systems started to expand until the development of a super computer, your personal computer must provide several devices. (See Determine 1.4) was found for the submission of time-based idea known as TSS (Time Giving System), and for once established a network (network) computer at this method part.

In the TSS system several devices linked with a coordinator computer. In the procedure of TSS started to appear a mix pc and telecoms technological innovation that was initially designed on their own.

Figure 1.4. Pc network design of TSS.

In 1957 the Innovative Analysis Tasks Organization (ARPA) recognized by the Division of Protection (DoD) USA, 1967 preliminary style of the ARPANET was already launched and in 1969 organised a DoD ARPANET growth by performing research to hook up several computer systems to form an natural network (known as program ARPANET).
Determine 1.5. The pc network design of allocated managing.

As in the picture above, in this procedure some of the coordinator computer doing a great job in sequence to provide several devices linked in similar on each coordinator computer. In the submission procedure is absolutely necessary combination of deep between computer and telecoms technological innovation, because in addition to the procedure that must be allocated, all must provide the coordinator computer devices in a single control from a main computer.

Furthermore, when the prices of small computer systems had started to decrease and the idea of the submission procedure has grown up, the use of computer systems and systems already different, which range from procedure manages together and the interaction between computer systems (Peer to Fellow System) without going through your personal computer management center. For the begin of creating a local network technological innovation known as LAN. In the same way, when the On the internet was presented, most LAN stand-alone begin with regards to each other, until it becomes a massive network WAN.

1.3.2 Brief Record of the On the internet and the Web

1957: Innovative Analysis Tasks Organization (ARPA) recognized by the Division of Protection (DoD) USA.

1959: Len Kleinrock creates document on bundle changing.

1967: beginning of the ARPANET style was already launched.

1969: DoD organised growth of the ARPANET

1970: ARPANET started using the System Control Method (NCP)

1972: InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) was established to market a standard that has been decided. Requirements of telnet, is suggested.

1973: The idea of ​​ethernet described in PhD dissertation of Bob Metcalfe. Requirements for File Exchange, RFC 454, is suggested.

1974: Style of TCP / IP is described in details by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in "A Method for Packet System Intercommunication".

1982: TCP / IP became the protocol for the ARPANET and is specified by the DoD.

1992: The variety of On the internet serves surpasses 1,000,000. Tim Berners Lee to find software manager and a internet browser. School of The state of nevada launched Veronica system. A WWW internet browser known as Viola launched by Pei Wei and allocated with CERN WWW.

1993: NSF makes InterNIC to run Websites as the first of the Variety sector.Versi signing up (for the X Window System), designed by Marc Andreesen NCSA launched by the White House online. Nationwide Information Facilities Act goes and the govt of the United Declares started to be more serious in managing Website.

1994: PizzaHut online, is the first example of this method komerisal On the internet. Trash email has become a big case after a legal organization known as the Canter & Siegel propagate throughout the world about the email assistance to get a "green card". First Exclusive run "CyberBank" first. In 1994 it recognized Yahoo! as well be the year of the birth of Netscape Gps 1.0.

1995: CompuServe, The united states On the internet, and started to provide assistance access Prodiy keInternet.Perusahaan Marc Andreesen, Netscape Marketing and sales communications Organization, a community and a variety 3 for the greatest price Offericng preliminary community providing (IPO) on the NASDAQ share. NFS is no longer Meng-gratiskan sector signing up. Domain customers to begin paying for a organised sector used and to the world wide web.

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365 days ago

Three hundreds of years before now, each noticeable with a different popularity. The 1700s was covered with the growth of technical techniques that associated the industrial trend. The 1800s is the era of the steam engine. The Twentieth millennium, the technological innovation of radio, tv and computer techniques be a factor for the selection, handling and submission of press details. The Twenty-first century-era current or details, which the global pc technological innovation that is able to reach all areas of the world, the growth of techniques and technologies used, the distribution of details through the globally web, releasing interaction satellite and wifi marketing and sales communications devices / phones noticeable the beginning of the millennium yrs.

Since his community his Online and Windows95 os promoted by Microsoft Inc., Hook up several computer techniques both pcs (PCs) and hosts with a program of this kind of LAN (Local Place Network) to the WAN (Wide Place Network) becomes a factor simple and plain. In the same way, the concept of "downsizing" or "lightsizing" aimed at pushing funds (budget efficiency), particularly computer equipment, the need for a pc is one factor that can not be unavoidable.
1.1 Meaning of Pc Networks

The pc is the "interconnection" between two or more independent computer techniques, linked with the indication press wire or wifi (wireless).

Autonomous is when your personal computer does not take control of other computer techniques with full accessibility, so as to make the other computer, reboot, shutdows, data file loss or program damage.

In another purpose of networking is described as independent independent program with its own control program (have administration itself), has a program topology, application and components themselves, and talk with other independent program. (The Online is an example of a selection of independent program is very large.)

Two computer techniques can be said to be linked if they return details / details, giving sources possessed, such as data files, models, storage space press (hard hard drive, weak hard drive, cd-rom, flash drives, etc.). Data in the form of text, video and audio, moving through cables or wifi press (wireless) to enable the people in the pc to return data files / details, create on the same computer printer and using components / application linked together in a network

Each computer, computer printer or peripheral devices linked with a program is called a "node". A pc includes at least two or more computer techniques, the pc can amount to 1000's or even millions of nodes that are linked with each other.

Known pcs in the program relationships between nodes (computers), namely:
1.1.1 Fellow to peer

Peer meaning co-workers. Peer-to-peer program is a pc made up of several computer techniques, linked directly with a cross-over wire or a wifi or even the advanced hub / switch.

Computers on peer to see techniques are usually few in number with 1-2 models. For specific use, such as computer laboratories, research and a few other things, then the design is peer to see relationships could be developed for more than 10 to 100 computer techniques.

Peer to see is a design in which each PC can use the source on another PC or give resourcenya to use another PC, No one functions as hosting server that controls interaction techniques and computer source usage dijaringan included, in other words, any computer can operate as a customer and hosts in the same period.

For example, there are several computer techniques in one department, given the name of the group using the divisions concerned. Each computer allocated an IP address from the IP of the same class to be able to share with each other to return details or source possessed by each computer, such as models, cdrom, and other data files.

Figure 1.1. Fellow to peer
1.1.2 Client - Server

Client Server is a program design that uses a single or several computer techniques as a hosting server that provides the source to another computer (client) in the program, the hosting server will handle source accessibility systems that may be used, as well as the interaction procedure between the nodes in the program.

In addition to the regional program, this program can also be applied to internet technological innovation. Where there is your personal computer unit) features as a hosting server which only provides services to other computer techniques, and a customer who also just request a assistance from a hosting server. Access is done transparently from the consumer by first signing into the destination hosting server.

Client can only use the sources provided by a hosting server using the authority provided by the manager. Applications that run on the consumer part, it could be a source available on the hosting server. but can only be run after connecting to the hosting server. On the execution of application that are installed splikasi customer part is different from that used on the hosting server.

Client-server kind of assistance include:

v File Server: offer data file control features.

v Print Server: offer printing features.

v Data source Server: the running processes of the database running on this machine and other stations can be asked for assistance.

v DIP (Document Information Processing): providing assistance operate storage space, control and recovery of details.

Figure 1.2. Client-Server design with a hosting server that provides the general

Figure 1.3. Client-Server Model with Dedicated Servers

1.1.3 Benefits of peer to see networks

ü Implementation is cheap and easy

ü No need for a special program management software

ü Does not require program administrators

1.1.4 Lack of peer to see networks

ü Network can not be too big (can not expand the network)

ü low protection level

ü No one handle the network

ü Pc customers should be trained to secure computer techniques respectively

ü The more machines disharing, will affect computer performance

1.1.5 Benefits of customer hosting server network

ü Can handle better program security

ü Ease of management when the program is getting bigger

ü central program management

ü All details can be stored and supported up centrally in one location

1.1.6 Disadvantages of customer hosting server network

ü Need a professional program administrator

ü It took a good device to use as your personal computer server

ü Need application programs to easily simplify program control operations

ü The funds for a major program management

ü If the hosting server is down, all of the details and can not be utilized in hosting server resource

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